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2020年長江中下游中晚稻田間管理技術指導意見

發布時間:2019-08-24 16:16 信息來源(yuan):湖南省農業農村廳 責任編輯(ji): 點擊量:1

當前(qian),長(chang)(chang)江中下(xia)游地區(qu)中稻正處于(yu)拔節(jie)孕穗(sui)期、晚(wan)(wan)稻正處于(yu)分蘗期。受前(qian)期持(chi)續陰雨寡照影響,部(bu)分中稻生育進程(cheng)有所推(tui)遲、群體(ti)質量不高;部(bu)分晚(wan)(wan)稻移栽期推(tui)后(hou),秧(yang)齡偏長(chang)(chang)、秧(yang)苗偏高、秧(yang)苗素質偏弱。針(zhen)對當前(qian)長(chang)(chang)江中下(xia)游中晚(wan)(wan)稻生產現(xian)狀(zhuang)和存在問題(ti),農業農村部(bu)水稻專家指導組會同全國農業技(ji)術(shu)推(tui)廣服務(wu)中心,提(ti)出以(yi)“強管(guan)理、促平衡、增穗(sui)粒(li)、防病蟲”為要點的2020年長(chang)(chang)江中下(xia)游中晚(wan)(wan)稻田(tian)間管(guan)理技(ji)術(shu)指導意(yi)見。 

一是(shi)科(ke)(ke)學(xue)管水(shui)(shui)(shui)促平衡。中(zhong)稻(dao)要(yao)因苗(miao)(miao)(miao)擱(ge)(ge)(ge)(ge)田(tian)(tian)(tian),苗(miao)(miao)(miao)數過(guo)多、葉色濃綠的(de)(de)田(tian)(tian)(tian)塊(kuai)可重曬,其他(ta)田(tian)(tian)(tian)塊(kuai)可露田(tian)(tian)(tian)輕(qing)曬或分(fen)(fen)多次曬田(tian)(tian)(tian)。復(fu)水(shui)(shui)(shui)后(hou)堅持“以潤(run)(run)為主,以水(shui)(shui)(shui)調氣,水(shui)(shui)(shui)氣協(xie)調”的(de)(de)原則(ze)科(ke)(ke)學(xue)管水(shui)(shui)(shui),做到水(shui)(shui)(shui)層孕穗,有水(shui)(shui)(shui)抽(chou)穗,干濕交替(ti)灌(guan)漿(jiang),收獲前7—10天斷水(shui)(shui)(shui),切忌斷水(shui)(shui)(shui)過(guo)早,防止后(hou)期(qi)早衰。對(dui)(dui)前期(qi)擱(ge)(ge)(ge)(ge)田(tian)(tian)(tian)葉片已落黃的(de)(de)中(zhong)稻(dao)田(tian)(tian)(tian)塊(kuai),實(shi)行干濕交替(ti)間歇灌(guan)溉(gai),至(zhi)孕穗期(qi)建立水(shui)(shui)(shui)層; 對(dui)(dui)擱(ge)(ge)(ge)(ge)田(tian)(tian)(tian)效果不好,群(qun)體偏大的(de)(de)中(zhong)稻(dao)田(tian)(tian)(tian)塊(kuai),要(yao)繼續擱(ge)(ge)(ge)(ge)田(tian)(tian)(tian)并重擱(ge)(ge)(ge)(ge)田(tian)(tian)(tian),促進(jin)根系深扎,增強植株抗倒能力;對(dui)(dui)遲(chi)(chi)播、遲(chi)(chi)插等(deng)群(qun)體不足的(de)(de)中(zhong)稻(dao)田(tian)(tian)(tian)塊(kuai),實(shi)行帶肥(fei)輕(qing)擱(ge)(ge)(ge)(ge)田(tian)(tian)(tian),促進(jin)分(fen)(fen)蘗成(cheng)穗。晚稻(dao)要(yao)濕潤(run)(run)灌(guan)溉(gai),促進(jin)分(fen)(fen)蘗發生和群(qun)體生長,當苗(miao)(miao)(miao)數達(da)到預(yu)期(qi)穗數苗(miao)(miao)(miao)的(de)(de)85%左右開(kai)始(shi)擱(ge)(ge)(ge)(ge)田(tian)(tian)(tian),掌握“苗(miao)(miao)(miao)到不等(deng)時、時到不等(deng)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)”的(de)(de)原則(ze),擱(ge)(ge)(ge)(ge)田(tian)(tian)(tian)控水(shui)(shui)(shui)以提(ti)高(gao)分(fen)(fen)蘗成(cheng)穗率和群(qun)體質量。中(zhong)后(hou)期(qi)水(shui)(shui)(shui)分(fen)(fen)管理同中(zhong)稻(dao)。 

二是合(he)理(li)施(shi)(shi)肥(fei)(fei)增穗(sui)粒。穗(sui)肥(fei)(fei)的(de)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)要在(zai)群體(ti)高峰苗(miao)已(yi)過(guo)、葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)色(se)明顯褪(tun)淡顯“黃”時(shi),因(yin)地、因(yin)種、因(yin)苗(miao)合(he)理(li)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)。一季(ji)(ji)粳稻穗(sui)肥(fei)(fei)一般(ban)在(zai)葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)齡余(yu)數3.5—4.0時(shi),畝施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)15公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)復(fu)合(he)肥(fei)(fei)和5公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)尿素(su)(su);一季(ji)(ji)秈稻穗(sui)肥(fei)(fei)一般(ban)在(zai)葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)齡余(yu)數1.5—2.0時(shi),畝施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)7.5公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)尿素(su)(su)和5—10公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)氯化(hua)鉀(jia)(jia)(jia)。對(dui)生育偏遲(chi)、群體(ti)不(bu)足、葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)色(se)褪(tun)淡不(bu)明顯的(de)田塊,穗(sui)肥(fei)(fei)可提前0.5—1個葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)齡期施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong),并適當(dang)增加(jia)用(yong)(yong)(yong)量(liang);對(dui)群體(ti)旺長的(de)田塊,推遲(chi)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)穗(sui)肥(fei)(fei),視葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)色(se)褪(tun)淡情(qing)況,減少穗(sui)肥(fei)(fei)用(yong)(yong)(yong)量(liang)或(huo)(huo)不(bu)施(shi)(shi)氮肥(fei)(fei);對(dui)受災較重、發(fa)苗(miao)遲(chi)緩(huan)的(de)田塊,搶時(shi)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)促壯肥(fei)(fei),畝施(shi)(shi)復(fu)合(he)肥(fei)(fei)10—15公(gong)(gong)斤(jin),促進(jin)苗(miao)情(qing)轉化(hua)、加(jia)快(kuai)生長發(fa)育;對(dui)因(yin)淹水時(shi)間長、根(gen)系活力差的(de)田塊,適當(dang)噴施(shi)(shi)生長調節劑,養(yang)根(gen)保葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)恢(hui)復(fu)生機。雙季(ji)(ji)晚稻穗(sui)肥(fei)(fei)一般(ban)在(zai)植株倒(dao)2葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)抽出、倒(dao)1葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)露(lu)尖時(shi),畝施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)尿素(su)(su)2—3公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)加(jia)鉀(jia)(jia)(jia)肥(fei)(fei)4—5公(gong)(gong)斤(jin);對(dui)群體(ti)較小的(de)田塊,齊(qi)穗(sui)期畝施(shi)(shi)尿素(su)(su)2—3公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)或(huo)(huo)施(shi)(shi)尿素(su)(su)1.5—2公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)加(jia)葉(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)面噴施(shi)(shi)磷酸二氫(qing)鉀(jia)(jia)(jia)150—200克,促進(jin)籽粒灌漿(jiang)成熟。  

三是關(guan)口前(qian)移防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)病蟲(chong)。落實“預防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)為主(zhu),綜合防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)治(zhi)”的方針,加強(qiang)病情蟲(chong)情測報,準確掌(zhang)握病蟲(chong)發生動態,強(qiang)化病蟲(chong)綜合防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)治(zhi)。重(zhong)點(dian)做好(hao)稻飛虱、螟(ming)蟲(chong)、稻縱卷葉螟(ming)、稻曲(qu)病、稻瘟病及紋(wen)枯(ku)病防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)控。稻飛虱防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)控要(yao)突出“壓前(qian)控后(hou)(hou)”,防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)止穗期暴發成災;螟(ming)蟲(chong)和稻縱卷葉螟(ming)防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)控要(yao)以保護功能葉片(pian)為重(zhong)點(dian),根據(ju)“前(qian)松后(hou)(hou)緊(jin)、達標用藥(yao)”的原則(ze),在(zai)(zai)水稻中后(hou)(hou)期防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)治(zhi)主(zhu)害(hai)代;稻曲(qu)病和稻瘟病防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)控要(yao)在(zai)(zai)破(po)口前(qian)和抽(chou)穗期做好(hao)預防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)措(cuo)施(shi);紋(wen)枯(ku)病防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)控要(yao)重(zhong)點(dian)在(zai)(zai)分(fen)蘗盛期和拔節期選擇高含量單劑對口防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)治(zhi),提高防(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)治(zhi)效(xiao)率。 

四是(shi)防災(zai)減(jian)(jian)災(zai)保豐收。密切(qie)關注天(tian)氣變化,加強高(gao)溫、干旱、洪澇、“寒(han)露風”等災(zai)害預警,及時(shi)(shi)疏通溝渠(qu),確(que)保旱能(neng)(neng)灌、澇能(neng)(neng)排。如遇35℃以上的(de)(de)持(chi)續(xu)高(gao)溫,稻田(tian)一定要(yao)保持(chi)深水層,以水調溫。同時(shi)(shi),可根外噴施磷鉀肥(fei),提高(gao)水稻自(zi)身抗(kang)災(zai)能(neng)(neng)力。“寒(han)露風”到來時(shi)(shi),尚未(wei)抽穗的(de)(de)田(tian)塊要(yao)采取灌深水保“胎”;始穗的(de)(de)田(tian)塊要(yao)葉(xie)面噴施磷酸(suan)二氫鉀促進提早(zao)抽穗;抽穗揚花(hua)的(de)(de)田(tian)塊應灌深水保溫御寒(han)。有(you)條件地(di)區可以噴施增溫劑(ji),增強抗(kang)寒(han)能(neng)(neng)力,減(jian)(jian)輕低溫危害,確(que)保安全齊穗。 

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