立博app

當前位置: 首頁 > 業務工作 > 農業論壇

如何推進農業產業綠色振興

發布時間(jian):2018-12-02 17:09 信(xin)息來(lai)源:中(zhong)國科學報 責任編輯: 點擊量:1

就總(zong)體發展思路(lu)而言,要以(yi)科(ke)技創新為基(ji)礎,助力鄉村(cun)科(ke)技創業(ye)(ye);以(yi)科(ke)技興農為支撐,促進產(chan)(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)綠色振興;有效保障糧食安(an)全(quan)、食品安(an)全(quan)、生態安(an)全(quan);著力提高土地(di)產(chan)(chan)(chan)出率(lv)、勞動生產(chan)(chan)(chan)率(lv)、資源利用率(lv)、污染防(fang)控率(lv);完善并提升作業(ye)(ye)機械化(hua)(hua)、生產(chan)(chan)(chan)標準(zhun)化(hua)(hua)、管理智能化(hua)(hua)、開發高優化(hua)(hua)、產(chan)(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)綠色化(hua)(hua)、產(chan)(chan)(chan)品品牌化(hua)(hua)、功能多樣化(hua)(hua)、三產(chan)(chan)(chan)融合化(hua)(hua)、增收持續化(hua)(hua);實現農業(ye)(ye)強、農民富、農村(cun)美(mei)的主體目標。

以科(ke)技興(xing)農(nong)推動質量強(qiang)農(nong)與綠色強(qiang)農(nong),要著力(li)構建高優(you)生(sheng)產(chan)體(ti)系、高效產(chan)業(ye)體(ti)系、高值經營體(ti)系。事實(shi)上,強(qiang)化(hua)科(ke)技興(xing)農(nong)作用(yong),需(xu)要注重把握(wo)5個重要環(huan)節:優(you)良(liang)品(pin)種選(xuan)育、高優(you)技術配套(tao)、先進設施應用(yong)、產(chan)品(pin)加工提質、多樣(yang)功能開發。強(qiang)化(hua)產(chan)業(ye)綠色振興(xing),同樣(yang)需(xu)要把握(wo)5個關鍵(jian)環(huan)節:維護良(liang)好生(sheng)態、嚴(yan)格防(fang)控污染、土(tu)壤質量保育、農(nong)牧(mu)有機結(jie)合(he)、廢物循環(huan)利用(yong)。

不言(yan)而喻,鄉村(cun)科技興農與產業(ye)綠色(se)振興是息(xi)息(xi)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)關的,其相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)互交融(rong)、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)互促進、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)互支持、相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)互契合,進而保障資源節約、產出提高、環境友好(hao)、增收致富的目標實現(xian)。就發展(zhan)對策而言(yan),要著力把握5個方面(mian):

優(you)(you)(you)化農(nong)業(ye)(ye)綠色發(fa)展(zhan)格(ge)局。如何落實國(guo)家糧食(shi)安全與(yu)(yu)保(bao)障(zhang)(zhang)供(gong)應的(de)重(zhong)大部署(shu),首(shou)先要(yao)(yao)注重(zhong)“農(nong)業(ye)(ye)三區(qu)(qu)”建設,即糧食(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功能區(qu)(qu)、重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)農(nong)產(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)保(bao)護(hu)區(qu)(qu)、特色及優(you)(you)(you)質農(nong)產(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)區(qu)(qu)建設與(yu)(yu)完善。糧食(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功能區(qu)(qu),即要(yao)(yao)從(cong)保(bao)障(zhang)(zhang)糧食(shi)安全的(de)戰(zhan)略(lve)高度(du)審視種植產(chan)(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye)發(fa)展(zhan),劃定9億畝(mu)的(de)小(xiao)麥與(yu)(yu)玉米生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)區(qu)(qu),著力并有(you)效保(bao)障(zhang)(zhang)口(kou)糧供(gong)應,牢牢端好中國(guo)人自己的(de)飯碗。重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)農(nong)產(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)保(bao)護(hu)區(qu)(qu),即針對大豆、棉花、油菜、天然橡膠等(deng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)特性劃定生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)區(qu)(qu)域,滿足(zu)人們生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活與(yu)(yu)經濟(ji)發(fa)展(zhan)需(xu)求。特色與(yu)(yu)優(you)(you)(you)質農(nong)產(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)區(qu)(qu),即要(yao)(yao)發(fa)揮各個地域、各生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)態區(qu)(qu)優(you)(you)(you)勢,因地制宜與(yu)(yu)因勢利導創(chuang)造特色農(nong)業(ye)(ye)競(jing)爭優(you)(you)(you)勢。

其次要(yao)注重“示(shi)范園區”建(jian)設(she),即分門別類構建(jian)現(xian)(xian)代農業科技(ji)示(shi)范園區、農業可持續發展示(shi)范區、現(xian)(xian)代綠色(se)農業產業園區的建(jian)設(she)體(ti)系,并以此作為推動“農業三(san)區”建(jian)設(she)的樣板基(ji)地與重要(yao)抓手,全面(mian)形成(cheng)農業綠色(se)發展的新格局(ju),著力提高(gao)農產品(pin)的市場競爭(zheng)實力,以實現(xian)(xian)現(xian)(xian)代農業的高(gao)產、優質、高(gao)效、安全、生(sheng)態的發展目標。

全面實施(shi)基礎(chu)(chu)保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)建設。為了(le)保(bao)(bao)護和(he)提升農業產(chan)能,同時保(bao)(bao)障(zhang)綠(lv)色(se)與高優(you)(you)生產(chan),需要(yao)把握5個基礎(chu)(chu)環節:建設標準(zhun)農田(tian),配套水利設施(shi)與土壤質量保(bao)(bao)育措(cuo)施(shi);建設技術體(ti)系(xi),優(you)(you)化(hua)耕作制度與資源高效利用措(cuo)施(shi);建設種苗體(ti)系(xi),引(yin)進選育并重且集(ji)成推(tui)廣優(you)(you)良品(pin)種;建設管(guan)理體(ti)系(xi),實施(shi)綠(lv)色(se)管(guan)控標準(zhun)化(hua)與智能化(hua)運(yun)營;強(qiang)化(hua)風險(xian)防(fang)控,加強(qiang)病蟲害管(guan)理及其防(fang)災減災措(cuo)施(shi)。

就農(nong)(nong)業綠色(se)振興而言,無疑需要提升科技(ji)創新與科技(ji)創業的保(bao)障能力。就此,要充(chong)分挖掘(jue)動(dong)植物(wu)的遺(yi)傳潛力,著(zhu)力深化新品種的選育;要充(chong)分提高(gao)農(nong)(nong)業資源利用效率,推動(dong)農(nong)(nong)機農(nong)(nong)藝有效結合(he)(he);要充(chong)分發(fa)揮鄉村潔凈場地作(zuo)用,集成推廣清潔生(sheng)產(chan)技(ji)術(shu)(shu);要充(chong)分發(fa)揮綠色(se)標(biao)準化的作(zuo)用,完善溯(su)源及其監(jian)測(ce)技(ji)術(shu)(shu);要充(chong)分應(ying)用農(nong)(nong)業環(huan)境(jing)基準方(fang)法,合(he)(he)理(li)構建核算評估體(ti)系。

探索生(sheng)態(tai)循環農(nong)業(ye)(ye)模式。目前每(mei)年種(zhong)植(zhi)業(ye)(ye)秸稈產生(sheng)量7億(yi)噸(dun),養殖業(ye)(ye)廢棄物產生(sheng)量38億(yi)噸(dun),如果不進行有效循環利用(yong)(yong),將成(cheng)為巨大污染源,如果將其(qi)有效循環利用(yong)(yong),就能夠獲得潛力巨大的(de)(de)(de)農(nong)業(ye)(ye)生(sheng)產資源。要盡快把農(nong)業(ye)(ye)發展(zhan)從單一的(de)(de)(de)追求經(jing)濟(ji)效益轉到(dao)經(jing)濟(ji)和生(sheng)態(tai)兼顧的(de)(de)(de)目標上來,著力探索并構(gou)建特色各(ge)具的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)態(tai)循環農(nong)業(ye)(ye)發展(zhan)模式。

其重點包括4個(ge)方面:優化(hua)種(zhong)植(zhi)制度,例如玉米、大(da)豆輪作(zuo)制,既有(you)(you)利于(yu)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan),又有(you)(you)利于(yu)地力培育(yu);優化(hua)農(nong)牧結合(he),在(zai)畜牧業(ye)(ye)養(yang)(yang)殖(zhi)區(qu),要實施種(zhong)植(zhi)業(ye)(ye)有(you)(you)效(xiao)吸納與優化(hua)匹配,既保障種(zhong)植(zhi)業(ye)(ye)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan),又有(you)(you)利于(yu)養(yang)(yang)分轉化(hua)利用;優化(hua)農(nong)菌(jun)耦合(he),以種(zhong)植(zhi)業(ye)(ye)作(zuo)物(wu)秸稈(gan)+養(yang)(yang)殖(zhi)業(ye)(ye)廢棄物(wu)質優化(hua)組合(he),有(you)(you)效(xiao)發展(zhan)高效(xiao)食用菌(jun)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)(ye),生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)菌(jun)物(wu)蛋(dan)白,豐富食品供應;優化(hua)農(nong)草融(rong)合(he),在(zai)果園與茶園實施生(sheng)草栽培,既可以防控水土流失(shi),保護生(sheng)態環境,又能夠(gou)開發農(nong)區(qu)草業(ye)(ye),增(zeng)加農(nong)民收入,進(jin)而構建資源節(jie)約與環境友好(hao)的綠色農(nong)業(ye)(ye)發展(zhan)新模式(shi),創立新機制,取(qu)得新成效(xiao)。

推(tui)行(xing)優(you)(you)質產(chan)(chan)品(pin)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)。注(zhu)重應用先(xian)進(jin)信(xin)息技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu),優(you)(you)化構建與(yu)完善(shan)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)標準化體(ti)系,重點是實(shi)施(shi)(shi)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)過程防控技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu),推(tui)動(dong)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)標準農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan);關鍵是實(shi)行(xing)優(you)(you)質農(nong)(nong)(nong)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)的(de)(de)(de)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)措(cuo)施(shi)(shi),著力(li)抓好(hao)“一控兩(liang)減(jian)三基本”技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)體(ti)系構建與(yu)完善(shan)工作。強化水(shui)利設施(shi)(shi)建設,保障水(shui)資源(yuan)(yuan)利用效率提(ti)高,水(shui)的(de)(de)(de)平(ping)均利用效率要(yao)從0.52提(ti)高至(zhi)0.55以(yi)上(shang)(shang);嚴格實(shi)施(shi)(shi)“兩(liang)減(jian)”技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)措(cuo)施(shi)(shi),減(jian)少(shao)化學(xue)肥(fei)料與(yu)化學(xue)農(nong)(nong)(nong)藥(yao)使用量30%,研究并替代30%以(yi)上(shang)(shang)高效有(you)機肥(fei)料與(yu)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)物農(nong)(nong)(nong)藥(yao),并對農(nong)(nong)(nong)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)質量進(jin)行(xing)提(ti)標增(zeng)效。同時要(yao)完善(shan)產(chan)(chan)業(ye)化標準,實(shi)現(xian)優(you)(you)質優(you)(you)價的(de)(de)(de)統一,從源(yuan)(yuan)頭上(shang)(shang)保障優(you)(you)質農(nong)(nong)(nong)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)的(de)(de)(de)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)。還要(yao)大(da)力(li)發展(zhan)節(jie)(jie)水(shui)、節(jie)(jie)地(di)、節(jie)(jie)藥(yao)、節(jie)(jie)能以(yi)及減(jian)少(shao)溫室氣體(ti)排(pai)放的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu),大(da)力(li)推(tui)進(jin)綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產(chan)(chan)模式創新與(yu)“三生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)”技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)集成融合,使農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)科(ke)技(ji)(ji)創新速(su)度(du)超越綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)農(nong)(nong)(nong)業(ye)發展(zhan)步伐,有(you)效服(fu)務綠(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)色(se)(se)振興(xing),全面助力(li)農(nong)(nong)(nong)民增(zeng)收。

拓展綠(lv)色(se)農(nong)業(ye)多樣(yang)功(gong)(gong)能。在鞏固(gu)優質(zhi)高效生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)成果的(de)(de)(de)(de)同時,應進(jin)一步深入探索(suo)(suo)更(geng)多點綠(lv)成金的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)和(he)加工(gong)配(pei)套技(ji)術(shu)。農(nong)業(ye)還擁(yong)有(you)生(sheng)態(tai)、生(sheng)活、文(wen)化、旅游(you)、觀光等多樣(yang)功(gong)(gong)能,需(xu)要進(jin)一步深入探討與充(chong)分挖掘潛(qian)力。實際上(shang),良(liang)好的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)態(tai)價(jia)值(zhi)是難(nan)以用金錢衡量的(de)(de)(de)(de),其不僅體(ti)現在農(nong)產(chan)(chan)品上(shang),更(geng)蘊含在生(sheng)存質(zhi)量中(zhong)。隨(sui)著健康(kang)中(zhong)國規(gui)劃的(de)(de)(de)(de)實施,在生(sheng)態(tai)環境優良(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)地區發(fa)展旅游(you)觀光,促(cu)進(jin)三產(chan)(chan)融合(he);發(fa)展休閑養生(sheng),促(cu)進(jin)康(kang)復健體(ti)。這都有(you)助于(yu)點綠(lv)成金目標(biao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)實現。為此(ci),需(xu)要進(jin)行農(nong)業(ye)生(sheng)態(tai)功(gong)(gong)能的(de)(de)(de)(de)評估和(he)價(jia)值(zhi)核算,探索(suo)(suo)和(he)完善生(sheng)態(tai)服(fu)務產(chan)(chan)業(ye)體(ti)系,包括制(zhi)定標(biao)準,樹(shu)立品牌;做大規(gui)模(mo)、配(pei)套設施;科(ke)學評估,有(you)效監管,以科(ke)技(ji)創新支撐綠(lv)色(se)農(nong)業(ye)多功(gong)(gong)能發(fa)展。

掃一掃在手機打開當前頁