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牢牢守住國家糧食安全的生命線——農業農村部負責人解讀《關于防止耕地“非糧化”穩定糧食生產的意見》

發布時間:2019-12-04 16:54 信息來(lai)源:中華人民(min)共和國(guo)農業(ye)農村部 責任編輯: 點擊量:1

本網(wang)訊  近(jin)期,國(guo)務院辦公(gong)廳印發(fa)了《關(guan)于防止耕地“非糧(liang)化”穩(wen)定糧(liang)食(shi)生產的意見》(以下簡(jian)稱《意見》)。日前,農(nong)業農(nong)村(cun)部有(you)關(guan)負責人(ren)就《意見》出臺的背景、有(you)關(guan)要(yao)求、如何(he)貫徹落實等問題,接受(shou)記者(zhe)專訪。

問:請(qing)您介紹(shao)一下(xia)《意見(jian)》出臺的背景和(he)重(zhong)要(yao)意義?

答(da):習近平(ping)總書記強調(diao)(diao),解決好吃飯(fan)問題(ti),始終是治國理(li)政的頭等(deng)大(da)事。近年我(wo)國農業結構(gou)(gou)不斷(duan)優(you)化(hua),區域布(bu)局趨于(yu)合理(li),糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)生產連年豐收,連續(xu)6年保持(chi)在(zai)1.3萬億斤以上(shang),為(wei)穩(wen)定經濟社會發(fa)展大(da)局提供(gong)堅實支撐。與此同時,部(bu)分(fen)地(di)區也出現耕地(di)“非糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)化(hua)”傾向,一(yi)些(xie)(xie)地(di)方把(ba)農業結構(gou)(gou)調(diao)(diao)整簡單理(li)解為(wei)壓減糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)生產,一(yi)些(xie)(xie)經營主體違規(gui)在(zai)永久基本(ben)農田(tian)上(shang)種樹(shu)挖塘,一(yi)些(xie)(xie)工商資(zi)本(ben)大(da)規(gui)模流轉耕地(di)改種非糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)等(deng),這些(xie)(xie)問題(ti)如果任其(qi)發(fa)展,將影響國家(jia)(jia)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)安全。隨(sui)著(zhu)我(wo)國人(ren)口數量增(zeng)長、消費(fei)結構(gou)(gou)不斷(duan)升級和資(zi)源環境承(cheng)載力趨緊,糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)產需仍將維持(chi)緊平(ping)衡態勢;今年突如其(qi)來(lai)(lai)的新冠肺炎疫情(qing),使糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)等(deng)大(da)宗農產品(pin)貿易鏈(lian)(lian)、供(gong)應鏈(lian)(lian)受到(dao)沖擊,國際農產品(pin)市場(chang)供(gong)給不確定性增(zeng)加。必(bi)須堅持(chi)把(ba)確保國家(jia)(jia)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)安全作(zuo)(zuo)為(wei)“三農”工作(zuo)(zuo)的首要任務,以穩(wen)定國內糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)生產來(lai)(lai)應對國際形勢變化(hua)帶來(lai)(lai)的不確定性,將有限的耕地(di)資(zi)源優(you)先用于(yu)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)生產,采取有力措施防止(zhi)耕地(di)“非糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)化(hua)”,著(zhu)力穩(wen)政策、穩(wen)面(mian)積、穩(wen)產量,牢(lao)牢(lao)守住國家(jia)(jia)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)安全的生命(ming)線。

黨中(zhong)央、國(guo)(guo)務院(yuan)對此高度重視,習近平總書記多次作出重要(yao)(yao)指(zhi)示,李克強總理提出明確要(yao)(yao)求。貫徹落實黨中(zhong)央、國(guo)(guo)務院(yuan)決策部(bu)(bu)署,農業農村(cun)部(bu)(bu)會同(tong)國(guo)(guo)家(jia)發(fa)展(zhan)改革(ge)委、財政(zheng)部(bu)(bu)、自然資(zi)源(yuan)部(bu)(bu)、司法部(bu)(bu)、國(guo)(guo)家(jia)糧(liang)食(shi)(shi)和物(wu)資(zi)儲備局(ju)(ju)、國(guo)(guo)家(jia)林草(cao)局(ju)(ju)研究起草(cao)了意(yi)見(jian)稿,以(yi)國(guo)(guo)務院(yuan)辦公廳文件印(yin)發(fa)。《意(yi)見(jian)》強調,各(ge)地(di)各(ge)部(bu)(bu)門要(yao)(yao)充(chong)分認(ren)識防止耕(geng)(geng)地(di)“非(fei)糧(liang)化”穩定糧(liang)食(shi)(shi)生產的(de)重要(yao)(yao)性緊迫性,把(ba)確保國(guo)(guo)家(jia)糧(liang)食(shi)(shi)安全作為(wei)“三(san)農”工作的(de)首要(yao)(yao)任務,科學合理利(li)用耕(geng)(geng)地(di)資(zi)源(yuan),共同(tong)扛起保障國(guo)(guo)家(jia)糧(liang)食(shi)(shi)安全的(de)責(ze)任;要(yao)(yao)堅(jian)持(chi)問題導向,明確耕(geng)(geng)地(di)利(li)用優(you)先序(xu),加強糧(liang)食(shi)(shi)生產功能區監管,穩定非(fei)主產區糧(liang)食(shi)(shi)種植(zhi)面(mian)積,有序(xu)引導工商資(zi)本(ben)下鄉,嚴(yan)禁違規占用永(yong)久基(ji)本(ben)農田種樹挖塘;要(yao)(yao)堅(jian)持(chi)激勵約束相結合,嚴(yan)格(ge)落實糧(liang)食(shi)(shi)安全省長責(ze)任制,完(wan)善(shan)糧(liang)食(shi)(shi)生產支持(chi)政(zheng)策,加強耕(geng)(geng)地(di)種糧(liang)情況監測(ce),確保各(ge)項任務落實到位。

問:《意見》對如何科學合理利用(yong)耕地資源(yuan)提出了什(shen)么要求(qiu)?

答:耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)是(shi)糧(liang)(liang)食(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產的(de)根基(ji)。我國耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)總量少(shao),質(zhi)量總體不(bu)高,后備資源不(bu)足(zu)。面對農產品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產需求多樣化,必(bi)須處理好發(fa)展(zhan)糧(liang)(liang)食(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產和(he)發(fa)揮(hui)比較效益(yi)(yi)的(de)關系,不(bu)能單純(chun)以經(jing)濟效益(yi)(yi)決定(ding)耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)用(yong)(yong)途,必(bi)須集中力量把(ba)最基(ji)本(ben)最重要(yao)(yao)(yao)的(de)保住,將有限(xian)的(de)耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)資源優先(xian)用(yong)(yong)于糧(liang)(liang)食(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產,確(que)保谷物基(ji)本(ben)自給、口糧(liang)(liang)絕對安(an)全。對此,《意見》提出要(yao)(yao)(yao)科學合理利用(yong)(yong)耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)資源,明(ming)確(que)耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)利用(yong)(yong)優先(xian)序(xu)。首先(xian),永(yong)久基(ji)本(ben)農田要(yao)(yao)(yao)重點用(yong)(yong)于發(fa)展(zhan)糧(liang)(liang)食(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產,特別(bie)是(shi)保障(zhang)稻谷、小麥、玉米三大谷物的(de)種植面積。其(qi)次,一(yi)般耕(geng)地(di)(di)(di)應(ying)主要(yao)(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)于糧(liang)(liang)食(shi)和(he)棉、油(you)、糖(tang)、蔬菜(cai)等(deng)農產品(pin)及飼草飼料生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產。第三,在(zai)優先(xian)滿足(zu)糧(liang)(liang)食(shi)和(he)食(shi)用(yong)(yong)農產品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產基(ji)礎上,適度用(yong)(yong)于非(fei)食(shi)用(yong)(yong)農產品(pin)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產。對市場(chang)明(ming)顯過剩的(de)非(fei)食(shi)用(yong)(yong)農產品(pin),要(yao)(yao)(yao)加以引導,防止無序(xu)發(fa)展(zhan)。

問:《意見(jian)》對(dui)加(jia)強糧(liang)食生產功(gong)能(neng)區監(jian)管和建設有什(shen)么考慮?

答:糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)是在(zai)永久基本(ben)農(nong)田中(zhong)(zhong),劃(hua)(hua)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)水土(tu)資(zi)源條件較好(hao)、基礎設(she)(she)施較為(wei)完(wan)善、相對集中(zhong)(zhong)連片的(de)(de)(de)地塊,是確保(bao)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)產(chan)(chan)(chan)能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)核心區(qu)(qu)域,是穩(wen)定(ding)(ding)口(kou)(kou)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)基礎。按(an)照國(guo)務(wu)院辦公廳(ting)關于建立糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)和(he)重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)農(nong)產(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)保(bao)護區(qu)(qu)的(de)(de)(de)指導意見要(yao)求,目(mu)(mu)前各地已劃(hua)(hua)定(ding)(ding)9億畝糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu),并基本(ben)完(wan)成上(shang)(shang)圖入庫(ku),精準落實到(dao)地塊。據測算,糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)建成后(hou),可(ke)以(yi)(yi)保(bao)障我(wo)國(guo)95%的(de)(de)(de)口(kou)(kou)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)90%以(yi)(yi)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)谷物(wu)需求。按(an)照《意見》要(yao)求,將(jiang)從兩方面(mian)入手(shou),發揮糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)在(zai)確保(bao)國(guo)家糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)安全中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用。一(yi)方面(mian),加(jia)強監管(guan),防止(zhi)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)弱(ruo)化糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)。把(ba)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)落實到(dao)地塊,引導種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)目(mu)(mu)標(biao)(biao)(biao)作(zuo)物(wu),保(bao)障糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)。組織開(kai)展(zhan)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)劃(hua)(hua)定(ding)(ding)情況“回頭看”,對糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)大(da)但劃(hua)(hua)定(ding)(ding)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)少的(de)(de)(de)進行補(bu)劃(hua)(hua),對耕地性質(zhi)已發生(sheng)改(gai)變、不(bu)符合劃(hua)(hua)定(ding)(ding)標(biao)(biao)(biao)準的(de)(de)(de)予以(yi)(yi)剔除(chu)并及時補(bu)劃(hua)(hua)。引導作(zuo)物(wu)一(yi)年兩熟以(yi)(yi)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)至少生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)一(yi)季(ji)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)非糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)作(zuo)物(wu)的(de)(de)(de)要(yao)在(zai)種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)一(yi)季(ji)后(hou)能(neng)(neng)(neng)夠恢復糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)。不(bu)得(de)(de)擅(shan)自調整糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu),不(bu)得(de)(de)違規(gui)(gui)在(zai)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)內(nei)建設(she)(she)種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)和(he)養(yang)殖設(she)(she)施,不(bu)得(de)(de)違規(gui)(gui)將(jiang)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)納入退耕還(huan)林還(huan)草范圍,不(bu)得(de)(de)在(zai)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)內(nei)超標(biao)(biao)(biao)準建設(she)(she)農(nong)田林網。另一(yi)方面(mian),加(jia)大(da)政(zheng)策(ce)支持(chi)力度,穩(wen)定(ding)(ding)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)。研究制定(ding)(ding)加(jia)強糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)建設(she)(she)的(de)(de)(de)意見,建立精準支持(chi)政(zheng)策(ce)體系,推(tui)動相關農(nong)業資(zi)金向糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)傾斜,優先支持(chi)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)內(nei)目(mu)(mu)標(biao)(biao)(biao)作(zuo)物(wu)種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。把(ba)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)區(qu)(qu)作(zuo)為(wei)高標(biao)(biao)(biao)準農(nong)田建設(she)(she)重(zhong)(zhong)點,加(jia)快建成“一(yi)季(ji)千斤、兩季(ji)一(yi)噸”的(de)(de)(de)高標(biao)(biao)(biao)準糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)田,提升糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)綜合生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)(chan)能(neng)(neng)(neng)力。

問:《意見》在調動農民種糧積(ji)極性上有什么考慮?

答:近年(nian)我國(guo)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食生(sheng)(sheng)產成本(ben)(ben)剛性上漲,種糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)效(xiao)(xiao)益(yi)持(chi)續(xu)下滑,農(nong)民(min)種糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)積(ji)極性受到影響。按(an)照《意見(jian)》部署,將堅(jian)持(chi)多(duo)(duo)措并舉、多(duo)(duo)管齊(qi)下,提(ti)(ti)升種糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)比較效(xiao)(xiao)益(yi),保(bao)障(zhang)農(nong)民(min)種糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)基(ji)本(ben)(ben)收(shou)(shou)入,讓種糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)農(nong)民(min)有甜頭有盼頭。強政(zheng)策(ce)(ce),加(jia)強對種糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)主體的(de)政(zheng)策(ce)(ce)激勵,支持(chi)家(jia)庭農(nong)場、農(nong)民(min)合作社(she)發展(zhan)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食適(shi)度規模經(jing)(jing)營。完(wan)善小麥稻谷最低收(shou)(shou)購價政(zheng)策(ce)(ce),繼續(xu)實施稻谷補貼(tie)和玉米大豆生(sheng)(sheng)產者(zhe)補貼(tie)。提(ti)(ti)效(xiao)(xiao)益(yi),培育糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食產業化(hua)聯合體,支持(chi)建(jian)設糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食產后(hou)烘(hong)干、加(jia)工(gong)設施,打通糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食生(sheng)(sheng)產流(liu)通上下游(you)產業鏈,提(ti)(ti)高(gao)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食經(jing)(jing)營效(xiao)(xiao)益(yi)。降成本(ben)(ben),大力(li)(li)推(tui)(tui)進(jin)代耕代種、統防(fang)統治、土地(di)托(tuo)管等農(nong)業生(sheng)(sheng)產社(she)會化(hua)服務,積(ji)極開展(zhan)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食生(sheng)(sheng)產薄弱環節機械(xie)化(hua)技術試驗示范(fan),著力(li)(li)解決水稻機插、玉米籽粒(li)機收(shou)(shou)等瓶頸問題(ti),加(jia)快丘陵山區(qu)農(nong)田宜機化(hua)改(gai)造,減(jian)輕勞動強度,降低糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食生(sheng)(sheng)產成本(ben)(ben)。防(fang)風(feng)險,推(tui)(tui)進(jin)三大糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食作物完(wan)全成本(ben)(ben)保(bao)險和收(shou)(shou)入保(bao)險試點,為糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食生(sheng)(sheng)產保(bao)駕(jia)護航。

問:《意(yi)見》將采取哪些措施來(lai)穩定各地區糧食生產?

答:我國(guo)(guo)人(ren)(ren)多地(di)少的基本(ben)國(guo)(guo)情,決定(ding)了(le)必須舉全國(guo)(guo)之力解決14億人(ren)(ren)的吃(chi)飯大事,各地(di)區(qu)都有(you)保障國(guo)(guo)家(jia)糧食(shi)安全的責任和義務。但近(jin)年(nian)來(lai)一(yi)些(xie)糧食(shi)產(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)銷(xiao)平衡(heng)區(qu)自(zi)給(gei)率明顯下(xia)(xia)降,主(zhu)銷(xiao)區(qu)自(zi)給(gei)率持(chi)續(xu)低位下(xia)(xia)行,主(zhu)銷(xiao)區(qu)和產(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)銷(xiao)平衡(heng)區(qu)糧食(shi)凈調入量明顯增加(jia)。《意見》要(yao)求,糧食(shi)主(zhu)產(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)區(qu)要(yao)努力發(fa)揮優勢,鞏固(gu)提升(sheng)糧食(shi)綜(zong)合生產(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)能(neng)力,繼續(xu)為全國(guo)(guo)做貢獻;產(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)銷(xiao)平衡(heng)區(qu)和主(zhu)銷(xiao)區(qu)要(yao)保持(chi)應有(you)的自(zi)給(gei)率,確(que)保糧食(shi)種植面(mian)積不減少、產(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)能(neng)有(you)提升(sheng)、產(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量不下(xia)(xia)降,共同維護好(hao)國(guo)(guo)家(jia)糧食(shi)安全。

按照(zhao)《意見》部署,下一步(bu)將(jiang)采取激勵(li)和(he)(he)約(yue)束相結合措施(shi),調動各地(di)區重(zhong)農(nong)抓糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)積(ji)(ji)(ji)極性。細(xi)化要求(qiu),糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食產(chan)(chan)銷(xiao)(xiao)平(ping)衡(heng)區和(he)(he)主(zhu)銷(xiao)(xiao)區要按照(zhao)重(zhong)要農(nong)產(chan)(chan)品(pin)區域布局(ju)及分品(pin)種(zhong)(zhong)生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)供給方案要求(qiu),制定(ding)具體實(shi)施(shi)方案并抓好落實(shi),扭轉糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)(ji)下滑(hua)勢(shi)頭。產(chan)(chan)銷(xiao)(xiao)平(ping)衡(heng)區要著(zhu)力建(jian)(jian)成一批旱澇保(bao)(bao)收、高產(chan)(chan)穩產(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)口糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)田,保(bao)(bao)證(zheng)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食基(ji)本自給。主(zhu)銷(xiao)(xiao)區要明確糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)(ji)底線,穩定(ding)和(he)(he)提(ti)高糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食自給率。壓實(shi)責(ze)任(ren),各地(di)要切(qie)實(shi)承擔起保(bao)(bao)障本地(di)區糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食安(an)全(quan)的(de)(de)主(zhu)體責(ze)任(ren),穩定(ding)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)(ji),將(jiang)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)目標(biao)任(ren)務分解(jie)到市縣(xian)。強化糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食安(an)全(quan)省(sheng)長責(ze)任(ren)制考核(he)(he),提(ti)高糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食種(zhong)(zhong)植(zhi)面(mian)積(ji)(ji)(ji)、產(chan)(chan)量和(he)(he)高標(biao)準(zhun)農(nong)田建(jian)(jian)設(she)等考核(he)(he)指標(biao)權重(zhong),細(xi)化對(dui)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食主(zhu)產(chan)(chan)區、產(chan)(chan)銷(xiao)(xiao)平(ping)衡(heng)區和(he)(he)主(zhu)銷(xiao)(xiao)區的(de)(de)考核(he)(he)要求(qiu)。嚴格考核(he)(he)并強化結果(guo)運用,對(dui)成績突出的(de)(de)省(sheng)份進(jin)行表揚(yang),對(dui)落實(shi)不力的(de)(de)省(sheng)份進(jin)行通(tong)報約(yue)談,并與相關支持政(zheng)策和(he)(he)資金(jin)銜接,切(qie)實(shi)發揮(hui)考核(he)(he)的(de)(de)“指揮(hui)棒”作用。利(li)(li)益補(bu)(bu)償(chang),健全(quan)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食主(zhu)產(chan)(chan)區利(li)(li)益補(bu)(bu)償(chang)機制,落實(shi)產(chan)(chan)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)大縣(xian)獎(jiang)勵(li)政(zheng)策,將(jiang)省(sheng)域內高標(biao)準(zhun)農(nong)田建(jian)(jian)設(she)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)新(xin)增耕(geng)地(di)指標(biao)調劑收益優(you)先用于農(nong)田建(jian)(jian)設(she)再投入和(he)(he)債(zhai)券償(chang)還(huan)、貼息(xi)等,讓(rang)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)食生(sheng)產(chan)(chan)大省(sheng)大縣(xian)種(zhong)(zhong)糧(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)不吃(chi)虧、有動力。

問:《意見(jian)》對有序引(yin)導工商資本下(xia)鄉、防止大規模(mo)流轉耕地不(bu)種糧提出了(le)哪(na)些(xie)要求?

答:近年(nian)來,各地(di)(di)積(ji)極引(yin)導(dao)和(he)(he)(he)規(gui)(gui)范(fan)(fan)工(gong)(gong)商(shang)資本(ben)(ben)(ben)下鄉(xiang),在帶動(dong)鄉(xiang)村(cun)(cun)(cun)(cun)產業(ye)發(fa)展、加(jia)(jia)強(qiang)(qiang)農村(cun)(cun)(cun)(cun)基礎設施(shi)建設、促進(jin)農民增收等(deng)方(fang)面(mian)發(fa)揮了積(ji)極作用。但(dan)也(ye)出現(xian)了工(gong)(gong)商(shang)資本(ben)(ben)(ben)違(wei)(wei)反相(xiang)關產業(ye)發(fa)展規(gui)(gui)劃(hua)大(da)(da)規(gui)(gui)模流轉耕地(di)(di)不(bu)種糧的現(xian)象。為此,《意見》將采取四(si)(si)方(fang)面(mian)措施(shi)解決(jue)。一(yi)是(shi)強(qiang)(qiang)化(hua)引(yin)導(dao)。強(qiang)(qiang)化(hua)政策激勵和(he)(he)(he)宣傳引(yin)導(dao),鼓勵和(he)(he)(he)引(yin)導(dao)工(gong)(gong)商(shang)資本(ben)(ben)(ben)發(fa)揮比(bi)較優勢(shi),到(dao)農村(cun)(cun)(cun)(cun)從事良(liang)種繁(fan)育、糧食(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)流通和(he)(he)(he)糧食(shi)生產專業(ye)化(hua)社(she)(she)會化(hua)服務等(deng)適合企業(ye)化(hua)經(jing)營(ying)(ying)、效益(yi)高、不(bu)與(yu)農民爭利的領域,支(zhi)持其與(yu)農戶建立緊密利益(yi)聯結(jie)機(ji)制(zhi),形成利益(yi)共(gong)同體,參與(yu)糧食(shi)全產業(ye)鏈發(fa)展。二是(shi)修訂相(xiang)關法規(gui)(gui)。修訂農村(cun)(cun)(cun)(cun)土地(di)(di)經(jing)營(ying)(ying)權流轉管理辦法,規(gui)(gui)范(fan)(fan)工(gong)(gong)商(shang)企業(ye)等(deng)社(she)(she)會資本(ben)(ben)(ben)租賃農地(di)(di)行(xing)(xing)為,加(jia)(jia)強(qiang)(qiang)對土地(di)(di)經(jing)營(ying)(ying)權流轉的規(gui)(gui)范(fan)(fan)管理,防止浪費(fei)農地(di)(di)資源、損(sun)害農民土地(di)(di)權益(yi),讓農民成為土地(di)(di)流轉和(he)(he)(he)規(gui)(gui)模經(jing)營(ying)(ying)的積(ji)極參與(yu)者和(he)(he)(he)真正受益(yi)者。三(san)是(shi)健全監管制(zhi)度。督促各地(di)(di)抓緊依法建立健全工(gong)(gong)商(shang)資本(ben)(ben)(ben)流轉土地(di)(di)資格審查(cha)和(he)(he)(he)項目審核(he)制(zhi)度,為引(yin)導(dao)農村(cun)(cun)(cun)(cun)土地(di)(di)規(gui)(gui)范(fan)(fan)有序(xu)流轉提供(gong)必要(yao)的制(zhi)度支(zhi)撐(cheng)。四(si)(si)是(shi)堅決(jue)制(zhi)止違(wei)(wei)規(gui)(gui)行(xing)(xing)為。強(qiang)(qiang)化(hua)租賃農地(di)(di)監測監管,對工(gong)(gong)商(shang)資本(ben)(ben)(ben)違(wei)(wei)反相(xiang)關產業(ye)發(fa)展規(gui)(gui)劃(hua)大(da)(da)規(gui)(gui)模流轉耕地(di)(di)不(bu)種糧的“非糧化(hua)”行(xing)(xing)為,一(yi)經(jing)發(fa)現(xian)要(yao)堅決(jue)予以(yi)糾正,并立即停止其享受相(xiang)關扶持政策。

問:為確保(bao)《意見》落(luo)實到(dao)位,將采(cai)取哪些舉措?

答:為確(que)保《意(yi)見(jian)》落(luo)實(shi)到位,農業(ye)農村(cun)部將(jiang)會同有(you)(you)關(guan)(guan)部門做好(hao)四(si)方面(mian)工作(zuo)。一(yi)(yi)是(shi)摸清(qing)底數。底數搞不(bu)清(qing)楚(chu),政(zheng)策執(zhi)行(xing)就會出現(xian)(xian)偏差。我們將(jiang)指導各地對(dui)(dui)本區(qu)(qu)域耕(geng)地種(zhong)(zhong)糧情(qing)況進(jin)行(xing)動(dong)態監測評(ping)(ping)(ping)價(jia)(jia),摸清(qing)“非(fei)糧化(hua)”底數,從實(shi)際(ji)出發,分類穩(wen)(wen)妥(tuo)處置,不(bu)搞“一(yi)(yi)刀切”。同時采取堅決(jue)措(cuo)(cuo)施,遏制增量問題,確(que)保糧食生(sheng)(sheng)產穩(wen)(wen)定(ding)(ding)發展(zhan)。二是(shi)加強(qiang)監測評(ping)(ping)(ping)價(jia)(jia)。運(yun)用衛星(xing)遙感(gan)等(deng)現(xian)(xian)代(dai)信(xin)(xin)息技術,每半年開(kai)展(zhan)一(yi)(yi)次全國耕(geng)地種(zhong)(zhong)糧情(qing)況監測評(ping)(ping)(ping)價(jia)(jia),建立耕(geng)地“非(fei)糧化(hua)”情(qing)況通(tong)報機制。定(ding)(ding)期對(dui)(dui)糧食生(sheng)(sheng)產功(gong)(gong)能區(qu)(qu)內目標作(zuo)物種(zhong)(zhong)植情(qing)況進(jin)行(xing)監測評(ping)(ping)(ping)價(jia)(jia),實(shi)行(xing)信(xin)(xin)息化(hua)、精細化(hua)管理,確(que)保糧食生(sheng)(sheng)產功(gong)(gong)能區(qu)(qu)糧食種(zhong)(zhong)植面(mian)積。三(san)是(shi)強(qiang)化(hua)監督(du)檢查(cha)。督(du)促各地按要(yao)求(qiu)抓緊制定(ding)(ding)工作(zuo)方案,完善(shan)相關(guan)(guan)政(zheng)策措(cuo)(cuo)施,穩(wen)(wen)妥(tuo)有(you)(you)序抓好(hao)貫徹(che)落(luo)實(shi)。對(dui)(dui)《意(yi)見(jian)》執(zhi)行(xing)情(qing)況進(jin)行(xing)監督(du)檢查(cha),及時發現(xian)(xian)問題、協調推動(dong)解決(jue),確(que)保各項任(ren)務(wu)落(luo)實(shi)落(luo)地。四(si)是(shi)完善(shan)法(fa)律法(fa)規。進(jin)一(yi)(yi)步明確(que)占用永(yong)久基本農田發展(zhan)林果業(ye)、挖塘(tang)養魚等(deng)的處罰措(cuo)(cuo)施,讓防止(zhi)耕(geng)地“非(fei)糧化(hua)”有(you)(you)法(fa)可依(yi)。 


                                                              2020年12月1日

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